SOCIB has edited a new Atlas of Environmental Sensitivity of Coasts of Balearic Islands, this new atlas, elaborated in 2015 is a new extended and improved version of the previous Atlas realized in 2007. Environmental Sensitivity of Coasts gathers information concerning to geomorphology, biology-ecology and human-use resources and is focused on the determination of the behaviour of the different types of coasts front spills and pollution which arrives to the coastline. It is a necessary tool for decision making support against hydrocarbon spills and marine pollution events.
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Reference of the Atlas of Environmental Sensitivity of Coasts of Balearic Islands:
Balaguer, P., Vallespir, J., Vizoso, G., Ruiz, M., Cañellas, B., Fornós, J.J., Tintoré, J. (2015) Atles de Sensibilitat Ambiental del Litoral de les Illes Balears. Ed. Sistema d’Observació i Predicció Costaner de les Illes Balears (SOCIB). ISBN: 978-84-608-4596-6. 150 pp.
At 2:52 pm on July 11th 2007, the RORO vessel Don Pedro (ISCOMAR shipping company) sank in the coastal waters close to the Port of Eivissa. The vessel left the Port of Eivissa to Valencia when touched the seabed of the es Daus islets, located less than one nautical mile towards SE from the port. The vessel was aided by service boats of the Port of Eivissa and tugged back to port but failed to reach it and sank in the surroundings of the islets.
From the Mediterranean Advanced Studies Institute (IMEDEA), located in the island of Mallorca, Marine Technologies, Operational Oceanography and Sustainability Deppartment (TMOOS) worked together with Emergency Deperatment of the Ministry of Interior of the Balearic Islands Government reporting information (http://www.costabalearsostenible.com/donpedro) related with marine climate and environmental sensitivity of the shoreline of the SE of Eivissa during clean-up and restoration tasks. This section provides: a) the emergency web page designed for this event (containing useful information), and b) some reports regarding to environmental sensitivity of affected shorelines and pollution drift that were sent to the Emergency Advisory Board of theMinistry of Interior.
Emergency Web page containig all information: http://www.costabalearsostenible.com/donpedro
In June 2011 a detailed field survey in the Bay of Palma (Malllorca) was carried out in order to check and validate the environmental sensitivity classification. The main objective of this field survey was to increase the quality of existing coastal classification (dated from 2007, http://gis.socib.es/sacosta). Changes were not oriented to offer a greater detail in the classification (more number of coastal sections) but were intended to provide better support and information for clean-up and restoration tasks during a potential oil spill.
Regarding to specific modifications in the environmental sensitivity cartography of the Balearic Islands, have affected around 40 sections of shoreline. Modifications were made according to the 2010 aerial orthophotography of the Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Balearic Islands (IDEIB) of the Territorial Information Service of the Balearic Islands (SITIBSA). Changes mainly focused on ports infrastructures and shorelines in contact or close to wetlands. Thus cartography is updated and will be useful for decision support tasks in case of an oil spill.
Classification of coasts of the Balearic Islands according with its Environmental Sensitivity adapted from the standard established by NOAA (2002). The legend has been changed from 9 types of coastline (17 subtypes) to 8 (15 subtypes).
In the figure we can see the coastal types affected by changes in the legend. Beach coasts located in sheltered environments (8-A and 8-B) have been included in the types of coasts relating to sand and gravel beaches (3-A and 6 - A, respectively). According to the revision of the NOAA guidelines (2002), restoration and clean up activities in beach coasts are affordable tasks because the characteristics of the substrate can support vehicular and foot traffic, and also distribution of buried fauna varies significantly both spatially and temporally, and the most cases this is independent of the degree of wave exposure Its important to note that Digital Environmental Sensitivity Maps of the balearic Islands (GIS environment) keep the modified information (type of coasts) in the attribute tables indicating whether a beach coastline has been considered previously as 8-A and 8-B.
Abstract of the communication and poster presented at the First Iberoamerican Congress on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, that shows the relationship between shoreline Environmental Sensitivity and Integrated Coastal and Marine Management in the Bay of Palma (Mallorca).
This Work integrates the shoreline sensitivity, using the standard stablished by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Atmisnitration (NOAA, 2002), and the boundary delimitation tool for Integrated Coastal Zone management (ICZM) developed by Balaguer et al. (2008) applied in the Bay of Palma (Mallorca). The objective of integrating these two geo-spatial tools is to develop a proactive decision-making support system for minimizing risks (biological, economic or social) resulted from pollution or contamination in coastal and marine areas.
Shoreline Environmental Sensitivity can be used beyond as a tool to support the preservation of coasts, clean-up and restoration in front to an oil spill. Depending on the structural and textural characteristics, the materials that constitute the coastline have the capacity to retain, or not, both hydrocarbons (and similar substances) as solids (Municipal Solid Wastes, MSW). Furthermore, pollution which affects the coastline can be located both in terrestrial and marine environments. Terrestrial pollution sources may ultimately affects the coastline due to the effect of wind and surface runoff (plastics, different types of scum, oils/hydrocarbons and organics). Marine pollution affects the shoreline through the effects of wind, currents and waves, dragging, floating solids, diluted substances, hydrocarbons and derivatives. In many cases the pollution ends up affecting the shoreline have a landward origin, thus is necessary to determine territorial units (Shoreline Units (Balaguer et al., 2008) composed by urbanized coasts, natural rocky coasts, dunar systems, etc.) related with shoreline stretches and determine shoreline sensitivity in order to ensure proactive management faced to potential impacts.
Descriptions of the main coastal habitats developed along the coasts of Balearic Islands. The guide also describes considerations for selecting appropriate methods of cleanup and response according with the type of hydrocarbon. This guide or manual is an adaptation for the Balearic Islands coasts of the works made by NOAA listed below:
* National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (2010) Characteristics Coastal Habitats. Choosing Spill Response Alternatives (revised edition). Office of Response and Restoration. U.S. Department of Commerce. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
* American Petroleum Institute (API); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) & U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2001) Characteristics of Response Strategies: A guide for spill response planning in marine environments. Seattle WA: U.S. Department of Commerce; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and National Ocean Service. TD427.P4 C5 2001.
SACOSTA (Environmental Sensitivity of the Coastline) is a web-based map viewer which displays cartographic data related to the environmental sensitivity of the coastline of the Balearic Islands. The viewer was developed to be a decision-making tool to support responses to potential oil spills. The categorization of the coastline is based on the standards defined by NOAA (2002) and is comprised of three main components: a) geomorphological classification of the coast; b) biological resources (coastal protected areas); and c) human use (i.e. infrastructures, services, cultural and historic resources).
The SACOSTA tool complies with OGC interoperability standards and the criteria of the INSPIRE directive. The data can be accessed directly through the map viewer, via Google Earth (metadata window), or via a WMS. The descriptions of the data are available in the metadata catalogue of SOCIB.
The spatial data were obtained in 2005-2006 via a formal agreement between the Department of the Interior of the Government of the Balearic Islands and the University of the Balearic Islands. The data have been revised and updated by SOCIB.
ABSTRACT: In this chapter, we present a state-of-the-art system developed to manage oil spills crisis at the coastal areas of the Balearic Islands Archipelago. Specifically, we introduce a first version of an Integrated Decision Support System (IDSS) to response against oil spill emergencies which combines a numerical tool for tracking the spill (or objects) at the sea surface, i.e. the physical-geomorphological component, with a GIS tool containing the environmental and human variables. This system provides in real time the areas of probability of a spill, the potential impacts at the shore, the uses of the affected coasts and the resources available in the surrounding areas.
Sayol, J.M., Balaguer, P., Conti, D., Rietz, A., Garcia-Sotillo, M., Simarro, G., Tintore, J., Orfila, A. 2014. Towards an Integrated Oil Spill System: From Modelling to the Decision Support Tool. In: Clifton A. (Ed): Oil Spills: Environmental Issues, Prevention and Ecological Impacts. Nova Publishers. ISBN: 978-1-63321-548-1.